I am a Professor of Biology at George Fox University, and have studied various aspects of hummingbird physiology/ecology/biomechanics for nearly 40 years. My work on the energetics and biomechanics of hummingbird hovering, published in Nature in 2005, revealed important insights into the mechanics and evolution of this key hummingbird adaptation. In addition I have published numerous works that have added to our understanding of hummingbird energy management, flight metabolism, water regulation, evaporative water loss, and torpor. I am currently wrapping up a NASA-funded study of hummingbirds in both Arizona and Ecuador in which I explored how they will physiologically respond to increases in global temperature resulting from climate change. I received my B.S. degree in biology from Biola University, an M.S. in ecology from San Diego State University (advisor: Dr. George Cox), and a Ph.D. in physiological ecology from the University of California, Davis (Advisor: Dr. Wesley Weathers).